By Davide Bucci
Many instrumentation engineers and scientists usually take care of analog digital matters whilst imminent gentle measurements. no matter if off-the-shelf measuring strategies exist, comprehension of the analog habit of the measuring method is usually a necessity.
This booklet offers a concise creation to the most components of a low frequency analog acquisition chain. It goals to be sufficiently normal to supply an advent, but particular sufficient to steer the reader via a few classical difficulties which may be encountered within the topic. issues contain sensors, conditioning circuits, differential and instrumentation amplifiers, energetic filters (mainly for anti-aliasing reasons) and analog to electronic converters. A bankruptcy is dedicated to an advent to noise and digital compatibility.
This paintings is meant for individuals with a basic history in electronics and sign processing, who're trying to find an creation to classical digital options hired in measuring tools related to low frequency analog sign processing.
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Extra info for Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems
The measured voltage Vm thus becomes virtually independent from Rf , allowing to determine R(m) very precisely. 24, is widely employed in industrial applications. In fact, as long as the lead wire resistance remains approximatively the same for each of the three connections (which can be done if the three wires are kept together in the same cable), it is possible to estimate it at Fundamentals of Sensing and Signal Conditioning 31 each measurement and compensate it fairly accurately. 12] whereas resistance R1−2 , measured between terminals 1 and 2, is simply twice Rf .
It relates the output voltage (single ended) to the input differential and common modes of the voltages: Vo = R 1 R4 − R 2 R3 Vcm R1 (R3 + R4 ) + R1 + R2 2R1 R4 R2 + R3 + R 4 R1 + R 2 Vd . 9] . 10] If a perfect differential ampliﬁer has to be built, resistances R1 . . R4 should be chosen in such a way that the common mode gain is equal to zero. 11] 50 Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems leading to a simple expression for the differential gain: Ad = R2 . 12] In practice, very often R1 = R3 and R2 = R4 , yet perfectly achieving this condition is not possible, because of the inevitable tolerance of the resistances (this takes into account the effect of ageing and thermal drift).
Such a margin would represent a huge reduction of the available dynamic range. 3 V supply or even less. For this reason, a class of operational ampliﬁers (called rail to rail) has been optimized to make sure that ΔVsat± do not exceed 100 mV in the operating conditions. What we described above relates particularly to the output section of the operational ampliﬁer, but something similar also happens at the inputs: most ampliﬁers do not work well if the voltages at their inputs are too close to VCC and VEE .