By D.I. Dalgleish
The purpose of this e-book is to provide a transparent and concise exposition of the rules and perform of satellite tv for pc communications by means of describing the improvement of communications-satellite companies. it will likely be invaluable either to engineers who've labored in different fields of telecommunication and to scholars.
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The satellites therefore convert all transmissions received (whether at 6 GHz or 14 GHz) to the 4 GHz band; any transmissions intended for Standard-C stations are subsequently up-converted to 11 GHz. 5 The development of satellite communications INTELSAT VA The main difference between INTELSAT V and INTELSAT VA satellites is the addition to the latter of down-path spot-beam antennas working at 4 GHz; these antennas use the same reflectors as the 14/11 GHz spot-beam antennas and produce beams with a diameter of about 5°.
Although frequency reuse by orthogonal polarisation had been employed by satellites of other systems before its use on INTELSAT V this was the first time that it had been combined with frequency reuse by means of directional antennas. The spot-beam antennas receive at 14 GHz and transmit at 11 GHz. As can be seen from Fig. 9, one of these antennas points east and one points west. The east and west beams are widely separated and there should therefore be little interference between them; nevertheless, orthogonal linearly-polarised transmissions are used to give additional isolation.
An example is the APOLLO system, the development of which is being funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Commission and a number of European telecommunications carriers. g. the British Museum Library) to small local libraries all over Europe. A request for information may be passed to the central library by telephone or telex and a facsimile of the required documents is then transmitted by satellite to the local station. The system is equally suited to the distribution of documents or data from any large central office to outlying offices and particular packages can be addressed to specific offices or groups of offices.