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7 x 10" rads (point A) the gate bias was changed to - 5 V. Then the device was given an additional radiation increment of 3 x lo8 rads. At the completion of that increment, the device achieved the same flat-band value it would have had if it had been maintained with a gate bias of - 5 V (on the curve located approximately halfway between VBr= 0 and Vgr = - 10 V but not shown on this figure). This is shown as point B. Several more increments of 3 x lo8 rads were absorbed by the device to determine if any further flat-band shift would occur.
It is instructive to determine the flat-band voltage at the end of each irradiation increment for this example. In order to simplify the analysis, we will assume that history-dependence is totally nonexistent, so MODELING OF IRRADIATED MOS STRUCTURES 35 that the flat-band shift will be entirely determined by the piecewise-linear family of approximate curves shown in Fig. 10a and b and by the chosen form of V,,(D). By reading the value of V,, from Fig. 13b that corresponds to the specified combination of V,, and D at the end of each horizontal line segment in Fig.
In the medium- as well as the high-dose range the electric field throughout a large portion of the insulator can differ by orders of magnitude from the field value one would calculate from the ratio of applied gate voltage and oxide thickness. If the total radiation-induced charge is large enough (as it is for some typical experimental situations), it is quite possible that the total internal field may actually oppose the applied field in some regions of the insulator. Thus, even for the medium-dose range, one cannot assume that holes are swept continuously across the insulator in one fixed direction, since holes may actually be moving in different directions at different locations.