By Krishna Raju
Publication by means of Walstra, P., Walstra, Pieter, Wouters, Jan T. M., Geurts, Tom J.
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Extra resources for Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design
22(a) shows a beam with a prestressing tendon situated such that, at midspan, it is outside the concrete section. Nevertheless, the free-body diagram for the concrete in one half of the beam, shown in Fig. 22(b), indicates that the concrete section would still behave as though a prestressing force were acting on it with an eccentricity e. The situation shown in Fig. 22 is known as ‘external prestressing’ and has been used in several modern bridge projects. 1 (N/mm2). 22 Externally prestressed beam (a) elevation (b) free-body diagram.
The cylinder strength, fck, of a given mix is between 70 and 90% of the cube strength, the criterion used in BS8110. The usual range of concrete cylinder strengths used in prestressed concrete is 25–50 N/mm2, with values at the lower end of the range used for slabs, and those at the upper end for beams. Details of the design of mixes to achieve these strengths are given by the Department of the Environment (1975). 1 Strength of OPC concrete. 1 strength only, since the contribution of tensile strength to bending resistance is ignored, in prestressed concrete it is important to know both.
Assume, for the soil, γ=18 kN/m3 and ϕ=35°, and ignore passive resistance in front of the wall. S. (1976) Modern Prestressed Concrete Design, Pitman, London. Walley, D. (1984) The Childhood of Prestressing, The Structural Engineer, 62A, No. 1. 1 STRENGTH OF CONCRETE The strength of concrete is primarily affected by the water/cement ratio, that is the ratio of the weights of mixing water and cement used in a mix. The lower the water/cement ratio the higher the strength, and typical relationships between water/cement ratio and compressive cylinder strength at different ages are shown in Fig.