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Extra info for Advanced Molecular Biology: A Concise Reference
In 5. pombe, Wee I is a tyrosine kinase which phosphorylates Cdc2 at Tyr-15 and thus inactivates it. Weel activity is antagonized by Cdc25 phosphatase, which removes phosphate groups from the same substrate. Both Wee1 and Cdc25 are themselves regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals, and this is believed to be the basis of the GrM checkpoint in this species. The decision to proceed with mitosis or arrest in Gz thus reflects the relative levels of these opposing activities, and the regulatory networks which feed into this checkpomt are considered below.
CDK: Cdc2 Cyclins: Cdc13 CDK: CDK2 Cyclins: E Class CDK: CDK2 Cyclins: A Class CDK: CDK1 (CDC2) Cyclins: A and 8 CDK: CDC28 Cyclins: CLN5, CLN6 CDK: CDC28 Cyclins: CLB1-4 Two CDK-cyclin systems are active in G 1 of the mammalian cell cycle. The CDK2-cyclin E complex is required for the G,-s transition. The other CDKs and the D cyclins are responsible for interpreting growth factor signals for the environment, and act at the restriction point to channel the cell into either late G 1 or G0 . The mammalian CDK1-cyclin B complex is MPF- the vertebrate homolog of yeast Cdc2/CDC28 may be termed Cdc2 or CDK1.
In the absence of active CdclB, DNA replication is blocked, and this repression is lifted when the mitotic kinase is destroyed (see below). Entry into the S phase in mammalian cells. In mammals, four CDKs (CDK2, CDK3, CDK4 and CDK6) act in early Gt. All four associate with the D cydins, which are synthesized early in Gt in a growth-factor-dependent manner (growth factor regulation of the cell cycle is discussed below). CDK4 and CDK6 play the principle roles in the regulation of downstream events.