By Jeffrey Heath
It is a finished description of Tamashek Tuareg spoken in Mali. The kinds coated during this quantity are these of Tamashek within the slim experience, aside from Tawellemett yet together with the opposite Malian types (Goundam, Timbuktu, Gao, Ansongo, Kidal, and the Gourma zone south of the Niger River together with Gosi and the outskirts of Hombori).
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Extra info for A Grammar of Tamashek Tuareg
Adverbials, including PPs with nominal complement) come at the end of the clause, though as noted above pronominal PPs are usually cliticized. (15) a. ') b. potato c. ' edi dog dar too 18 2 Overview Regardless of whether a subject NP is present, the pronominal category of the subject is expressed on the verb. Thus ajjass-asn 'they-Ma entered', or with explicit subject NP sjjaes-gen medd-aen 'men entered'. 3, above). This does not apply to an object noun, even when it immediately follows the verb.
Aewwasr- 'keep back', has ww instead of gg. One could argue for -owaeC- as the basic PerfP stem for such verbs, since in all imperfective stems they are treated like verbs with PerfP -oPasC- (with Ρ other than w). However, in the Lolmpf of - v w v C - verbs, gg (probably the original treatment) is attested in variation with leveled-out w w , hence a w s t 'hit' (Imprt), LoImpfP -(t-)sgg0t- alongside -(t-)3wwdt-. The same is true of -vCwvC- verbs: PerfP -aswaer- 'precede', but LoImpfP (with medial gemination) -sawwasr- or -saggasr-.
A procedure for audibly modifying stems) permeates Tamashek morpho-phonology and morpho-syntax. Perhaps the major ingredient in ablaut is a vocalic melody superimposed on the stem (whether the latter includes fully specified vowels, as with nouns, or mostly underspecified vowels, as with 22 2 Overview verbs), consisting of L (low) and Η (components). The melody is often combined with one or more local ablaut formatives that target and modify particular segments of the stem. Local formatives may geminate a C, may lengthen or accent a V, or may convert a specific V to a different V.